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Arienne M. Dwyer著《Salar: a study in Inner Asian areal contact processes》

http://www.harrassowitz-verlag.de/title_3450.ahtml

看目录,是一个相当详尽的语言描述——看了这个,应该就可以知道正确的正字法应该怎么处理了
强烈建议大家凑钱买一本
我愿意出30Eur,反正
过来凑热闹的汉族粉丝
“朋友啊,你难道不哭吗,为了新的早晨”
本帖最后由 凯末尔主义 于 2009-7-11 16:11 编辑

2007

Harrassowitz Verlag · Wiesbaden

Arienne M. Dwyer

Salar:

A Study in Inner Asian Language

Contact Processes

Part I: Phonology

ISSN 0177_4743

ISBN 978-3_447_04091-4

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Photos and Figures .................................................................................... ix

Abbreviations ............................................................................................ xii

Preface....................................................................................................... xvii

On Transcription and Transliteration ........................................................ xix

1 Cultural History.............................................................................. 1

1.1 Salar Origins ............................................................................ 1

1.1.1 The Legend .............................................................................. 1

1.1.2 Early historical References to the Salars in China ................... 3

1.1.3 The Central Asian Connection ................................................. 6

1.1.4 Preconditions to Ethnogenesis ................................................. 8

1.2 Cultural Contact and ethnoreligious Identity ........................... 9

1.2.1 Tibetan and Muslim-Chinese Contact...................................... 11

1.2.2 Faith and Control ..................................................................... 14

1.3 Summary.................................................................................. 25

2 Linguistic History ........................................................................... 26

2.1 The Turkic Language Family: Locus and Chronology ............ 26

2.2 Classification of the Turkic Family.......................................... 29

2.3 The Classification of Salar....................................................... 32

2.4 Western Turkic Tendencies, real and imagined....................... 35

2.4.1 Phonetic Elements.................................................................... 35

2.4.2 Oghuz lexical Elements ........................................................... 40

2.4.3 Salar and Turkmen: a closer Relationship?.............................. 44

2.5 Archaisms in Salar ................................................................... 47

2.5.1 Morphosyntactic Archaisms .................................................... 47

2.5.2 Lexical Archaisms.................................................................... 49

2.6 South Siberian and marginal Kïpchak Turkic Elements .......... 52

2.7 Non-Uyghur Elements ............................................................. 56

2.7.1 Phonological Elements............................................................. 57

2.7.2 Lexical Elements...................................................................... 57

2.7.3 Morphological Elements .......................................................... 60

2.8 Southeastern Features .............................................................. 61

2.8.1 Sound System........................................................................... 61

2.8.2 Morphosyntactic Elements....................................................... 61

vi Table of Contents

2.9 Idiosyncratic Features .............................................................. 62

2.10 Summary of Salar Features by Type ................................................ 66

3 Documentation and Variation ....................................................... 69

3.1 Explorers and Linguists: previous Studies............................... 69

3.2 Data Basis ................................................................................ 73

3.3 Forms of vocalized Salar.......................................................... 74

3.4 Varieties and Variation ............................................................ 77

3.4.1 Western Salar: the Ili Dialect ................................................... 79

3.4.2 Eastern Salar Vernaculars ........................................................ 81

3.4.3 Factors in Dialect Variation ..................................................... 87

3.5 Language Status ....................................................................... 90

3.5.1 Speakers and Multilingualism.................................................. 90

3.5.2 Orthography, Extant Texts....................................................... 91

3.5.3 Language Endangerment.......................................................... 92

4 The Sound System: an Overview................................................... 94

4.1 Consonants............................................................................... 94

4.1.1 Surface consonantal Inventory................................................. 94

4.1.2 Underlying consonantal Inventory........................................... 96

4.1.3 Manner ..................................................................................... 96

4.1.4 Voicing and Aspiration ............................................................ 98

4.1.5 Place ......................................................................................... 108

4.2 Vowels ..................................................................................... 119

4.2.1 Surface vowel Inventory .......................................................... 120

4.2.2 Vowel Phonemes...................................................................... 121

4.2.3 Vowel Quality .......................................................................... 122

4.2.4 Diphthongs............................................................................... 132

4.2.5 Long Vowels............................................................................ 136

5 Syllable Structure and Prosody..................................................... 139

5.1 Framework ............................................................................... 139

5.2 Syllable Types.......................................................................... 139

5.3 CVC syllables and vowel Epenthesis....................................... 146

5.3.1 Epenthesis within the Syllable (1)............................................ 146

5.3.2 Epenthesis within the Syllable (2)............................................ 147

5.3.3 Epenthesis across Syllables...................................................... 149

5.3.4 Sonority, Syllable Weight and Epenthesis ............................... 150

5.4 Prosodic Minimality and Glide Epenthesis.............................. 151

5.5 Syllable Strengthening ............................................................. 153

Table of Contents vii

5.6 Summary of Strategies for achieving preferred

Syllable Structure .................................................................... 154

5.7 Prosodic Structure .................................................................... 155

5.7.1 Stress Assignment in Salar....................................................... 155

5.7.2 Morpheme-based Stress Assignment ....................................... 155

5.7.2.1 Stress-attracting Morphemes.................................................... 155

5.7.2.2 Unstressed Morphemes ............................................................ 156

5.7.3 Syllable-based Stress Assignment............................................ 157

5.7.4 Non-final Stress........................................................................ 157

5.7.5 Prosody-based Stress Assignment........................................... 159

5.8 Unstressed Suffixes.................................................................. 160

6 Major phonological Processes ....................................................... 163

6.1 Syllabification Processes.......................................................... 163

6.1.1 Glottal Prothesis....................................................................... 163

6.1.2 Initial [v]-Prothesis .................................................................. 164

6.1.3 On-glide Prothesis.................................................................... 164

6.1.4 Nasal Deletion; Vowel Nasalization ........................................ 165

6.1.5 Liquid Deletion ........................................................................ 166

6.1.6 Consonant Epenthesis .............................................................. 168

6.1.7 Co-occurrence Restrictions on Salar Codae............................. 169

6.2 Harmonic Assimilation Processes............................................ 171

6.2.1 Vowel Harmony....................................................................... 171

6.3 Regular Disharmony ................................................................ 173

6.3.1 Vowel Derounding................................................................... 174

6.3.2 Vowel Laxing........................................................................... 174

6.3.3 Vowel Raising.......................................................................... 175

6.3.4 Disharmonic Foreign Loans..................................................... 176

6.4 Other Consonantal Assimilation Processes.............................. 176

6.4.1 Voicing Assimilation ............................................................... 176

6.4.2 Place Assimilation of Dorsal Consonants ................................ 178

6.4.3 Labialization............................................................................. 179

6.5 Devoicing Processes ................................................................ 179

6.5.1 Final Obstruent Devoicing ....................................................... 179

6.5.2 Continuant Devoicing .............................................................. 181

6.5.3 r-Devoicing .............................................................................. 183

6.6 Spirantization of Final Stops.................................................... 185

6.7 Preconsonantal t-weakening .................................................... 185

6.8 Dental Affrication .................................................................... 186

6.9 Vowel-consonant Interactions.................................................. 187

viii Table of Contents

6.9.1 Vowel Devoicing ..................................................................... 187

6.9.2 Vowel Consonantalization (Spirantization) ............................ 188

6.9.3 Consonant Preaspiration ......................................................... 191

7 Diachronic development................................................................. 201

7.1 Approach.................................................................................. 201

7.2 Sources on premodern Salar .................................................... 204

7.3 Consonant Development in Common and Orxon Turkic......... 204

7.4 The Oghuz Turkic Context ...................................................... 210

7.5 Consonant Development in Salar............................................. 211

7.5.1 Labials...................................................................................... 212

7.5.2 Dentals ..................................................................................... 223

7.5.3 Velar and Uvular Consonants .................................................. 233

7.5.4 Laryngeal /h/ ............................................................................ 251

7.5.5 Coronal Spirants....................................................................... 255

7.5.6 Retroflex Fricatives and Affricates .......................................... 267

7.5.7 Glides ....................................................................................... 269

7.5.8 Nasals....................................................................................... 273

7.5.9 Liquids ..................................................................................... 281

7.6 Consonant Development and the Salar Lexicon ...................... 285

7.6.1 The non-Turkic Lexicon .......................................................... 285

7.6.2 Comments on the Turkic Lexicon............................................ 286

7.7 Vowels ..................................................................................... 287

7.7.1 Primary Vowel Length............................................................. 288

7.7.2 Secondary Vowel Length......................................................... 289

7.7.3 Modern Salar /i/ ....................................................................... 291

7.7.4 Modern Salar /¡/ ....................................................................... 291

7.7.5 Modern Salar /a/....................................................................... 292

7.7.6 Modern Salar /e/....................................................................... 294

7.7.7 Modern Salar /u/....................................................................... 295

7.7.8 Modern Salar /o/....................................................................... 296

7.7.9 Modern Salar /y/....................................................................... 297

7.7.10 Modern Salar /ø/....................................................................... 299

7.7.11 Summary: Vowels.................................................................... 301

8 Conclusions...................................................................................... 303

References ................................................................................................ 309

Index ......................................................................................................... 327

作者联络方式:作者会说汉语

http://www2.ku.edu/~kuanth/people/faculty_dwyer.shtml
Professor Dwyer (Ph.D. in Altaic and Chinese Linguistics, U Washington, 1996) is an Associate Professor of Linguistic Anthropology at the University of Kansas, with formal affiliations with the Departments of Linguistics and Indigenous Nations Studies.


http://linguistlist.org/people/personal/get-personal-page2.cfm?PersonID=10964
Email Access

Name: Arienne M. Dwyer
Email: anthlinguist@ku.edu



http://www.people.ku.edu/~arienne/
Dr. Arienne M. Dwyer
Johannes-Gutenberg Universität
Seminar für Orientkunde
D-55099 Mainz GERMANY
Phone ++49 6131 39 23885
Fax ++49 6131 39 24380 Email -- dwyer@mail.uni-mainz.de
Web -- http://www.uni-mainz.de/~dwyer/




http://unjobs.org/authors/arienne-m.-dwyer
Arienne M. Dwyer, in Arienne M. Dwyer
Arienne M. Dwyer
University of Kansas Department of Anthropology 1415 Jayhawk Blvd. - Fraser Hall 614 Lawrence, KS 66045 USA anthlinguist@ku.edu Tel. +1 (785) 864-2649 Assistant Professor of Linguistic Anthropology, University of Kansas, 2001­. Courtesy Assistant Professor of Linguistics and Indigenous Nations Studi... Arienne M. Dwyer. University of Kansas. Department of Anthropology ... Postdoctoral Researcher and Lecturer, Institute of Oriental Studies, J-G. ...
http://www.afpwebfolio.org/_files/6288_101.pdf


Arienne M. Dwyer 是美国的语言学家,是撒拉尔目前的本民族语言学界的权威马伟老师共事过的。看这个书目目录没有正词法的索引,我想内容也不会有,因为目前的TB31拉丁突厥文字推行之前Dwyer 的这本书已经出来了。我认为没有文字基础不可能有正词法。但是这本研究著作对我们学习非常有利。



我认为没有文字基础不可能有正词法。但是这本研究著作对我们学习非常有利。 IDRISS 发表于 2009-7-12 14:24

除非真的要像塞克语一样一字一音,连srbski都要写srpski,否则正字法关心的是phonology上的“underlying form”,跟历时的“词源学形式”。这两样都是这本书所关心的。
过来凑热闹的汉族粉丝
“朋友啊,你难道不哭吗,为了新的早晨”
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